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Version: v4.0

End-to-end Testing

E2E tests verify your components in a real browser. For example, when my-component has the X attribute, the child component then renders the text Y, and expects to receive the event Z. By using Puppeteer for rendering tests (rather than a Node environment simulating how a browser works), your end-to-end tests are able to run within an actual browser in order to give better results.

Stencil provides many utility functions to help test Jest and Puppeteer. For example, a component's shadow dom can be queried and tested with the Stencil utility functions built on top of Puppeteer. Tests can not only be provided mock HTML content, but they can also go to URLs of your app which Puppeteer is able to open up and test on Stencil's dev server.

End-to-end tests require a fresh build, dev-server, and puppeteer browser instance created before the tests can actually run. With the added build complexities, the stencil test command is able to organize the build requirements beforehand.

To run E2E tests, run stencil test --e2e. By default, files ending in .e2e.ts will be executed.

Stencil's E2E test are provided with the following API, available via @stencil/core/testing. Most methods are async and return Promises. Use async and await to declutter your tests.

  • newE2EPage: Should be invoked at the start of each test to instantiate a new E2EPage object

E2EPage is a wrapper utility to Puppeteer to simplify writing tests. Some helpful methods on E2EPage include:

  • find(selector: string): Find an element that matches the selector. Similar to document.querySelector.
  • setContent(html: string): Sets the content of a page. This is where you would include the markup of the component under test.
  • goto(url: string): open a page served by the dev server. URL has to start with /.
  • setViewport(viewport: Viewport): Updates the page to emulate a device display. This is helpful for testing a component's behavior in different orientations and viewport sizes.
  • waitForChanges(): Both Stencil and Puppeteer have an asynchronous architecture, which is a good thing for performance. Since all calls are async, it's required that await page.waitForChanges() is called when changes are made to components.

An example E2E test might have the following boilerplate:

import { newE2EPage } from '@stencil/core/testing';

describe('example', () => {
it('should render a foo-component', async () => {
const page = await newE2EPage();
await page.setContent(`<foo-component></foo-component>`);
const el = await page.find('foo-component');


The newE2EPage accepts the following options:

  • html: a HTML template, e.g. containing your Stencil component to be rendered in the browser (same as calling page.setContent('...'))
  • url: opens a url to open a page served by the dev server (option will be ignored if html is set, same as calling page.goto('...'))
  • failOnConsoleError: If set to true, Stencil will throw an error if a console error occurs (default: false)
  • failOnNetworkError: If set to true, Stencil will throw an error if a network request fails (default: false)

Example End-to-end Test

import { newE2EPage } from '@stencil/core/testing';

it('should create toggle, unchecked by default', async () => {
const page = await newE2EPage();

await page.setContent(`
<ion-toggle class="pretty-toggle"></ion-toggle>

const ionChange = await page.spyOnEvent('ionChange');

const toggle = await page.find('ion-toggle');

expect(toggle).toHaveClasses(['pretty-toggle', 'hydrated']);


toggle.setProperty('checked', true);

await page.waitForChanges();


checked: true,
value: 'on'

E2E Testing Recipes

Find an element in the Shadow DOM

Use the "piercing" selector >>> to query for an object inside a component's shadow root:

const el = await page.find('foo-component >>> .close-button');

Make sure to only use >>> once in your query. Puppeteer does not support nested deep selectors. Instead, separate the calls into two queries, e.g.:

// 👎 multiple nested deep selector aren't supported
const otherShadowElement = await page.find('my-component >>> div > my-other-component >>> h3');
// 👍 separated calls using `>>>` once
const divElement = await page.find('my-component >>> div');
const otherShadowElement = await divElement.find('my-other-component >>> h3');

Find more information about this selector type for Puppeteer in their project docs.

Set a @Prop() on a component

Use page.$eval (part of the Puppeteer API) to set props or otherwise manipulate a component:

// create a new puppeteer page
// load the page with html content
await page.setContent(`

// select the "prop-cmp" element
// and run the callback in the browser's context
await page.$eval('prop-cmp', (elm: any) => {
// within the browser's context
// let's set new property values on the component
elm.first = 'Marty';
elm.lastName = 'McFly';

// we just made a change and now the async queue need to process it
// make sure the queue does its work before we continue
await page.waitForChanges();

Set a @Prop() on a component using an external reference

Because page.$eval has an isolated scope, you’ll have to explicitly pass in outside references otherwise you’ll an encounter an undefined error. This is useful in case you’d like to import data from another file, or re-use mock data across multiple tests in the same file.

const props = {
first: 'Marty',
lastName: 'McFly',

await page.setContent(`<prop-cmp></prop-cmp>`);

await page.$eval('prop-cmp',
(elm: any, { first, lastName }) => {
elm.first = first;
elm.lastName = lastName;

await page.waitForChanges();

Call a @Method() on a component

const elm = await page.find('method-cmp');
elm.setProperty('someProp', 88);
const methodRtnValue = await elm.callMethod('someMethod');

Type inside an input field

const page = await newE2EPage({
html: `

const input = await page.find('dom-interaction >>> .input');

let value = await input.getProperty('value');

await' ');

await page.keyboard.down('Shift');
await page.keyboard.up('Shift');

Checking the text of a rendered component

await page.setContent(`
<prop-cmp first="Marty" last-name="McFly"></prop-cmp>

const elm = await page.find('prop-cmp >>> div');
expect(elm).toEqualText('Hello, my name is Marty McFly');

Checking a component's HTML

For shadowRoot content:

<div class=\"nav-desktop\">

For non-shadow content:

<div class=\"nav-desktop\">

Emulate a display

If you need to test how a component behaves with a particular viewport you can set the viewport width and height like so:

const page = await new E2EPage();

await page.setViewport({
width: 900,
height: 600

// Query an element that is hidden by a media query when width < 901px
const el = await page.find('.desktop');

Caveat about e2e tests automation on CD/CI

As it is a fairly common practice, you might want to automatically run your end-to-end tests on your Continuous Deployment/Integration (CD/CI) system. However, some environments might need you to tweak your configuration at times. If so, the config object in your stencil.config.ts file has a testing attribute that accepts parameters to modify how Headless Chrome is actually used in your pipeline.

Example of a config you might need in a Gitlab CI environment :

export const config: Config = {
namespace: 'Foo',
testing: {
* Gitlab CI doesn't allow sandbox, therefor this parameters must be passed to your Headless Chrome
* before it can run your tests
browserArgs: ['--no-sandbox', '--disable-setuid-sandbox'],
outputTargets: [
{ type: 'dist' },
type: 'www',

Check the testing config docs to learn more about the possibilities on this matter.