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Version: v3

Component API

The whole API provided by stencil can be condensed in a set of decorators, lifecycles hooks and rendering methods.


Decorators are a pure compiler-time construction used by stencil to collect all the metadata about a component, the properties, attributes and methods it might expose, the events it might emit or even the associated stylesheets. Once all the metadata has been collected, all the decorators are removed from the output, so they don't incur any runtime overhead.

  • @Component() declares a new web component
  • @Prop() declares an exposed property/attribute
  • @State() declares an internal state of the component
  • @Watch() declares a hook that runs when a property or state changes
  • @Element() declares a reference to the host element
  • @Method() declares an exposed public method
  • @Event() declares a DOM event the component might emit
  • @Listen() listens for DOM events

Lifecycle hooks


This isn't a true "lifecycle" method that would be declared on the component class definition, but instead is a utility method that can be used by an implementation consuming your Stencil component to detect when a component has finished its first render cycle.

This method returns a promise which resolves after componentDidRender() on the first render cycle.


componentOnReady() only resolves once per component lifetime. If you need to hook into subsequent render cycle, use componentDidRender() or componentDidUpdate().

Executing code after componentOnReady() resolves could look something like this:

// Get a reference to the element
const el = document.querySelector('my-component');

el.componentOnReady().then(() => {
// Place any code in here you want to execute when the component is ready
console.log('my-component is ready');

The availability of componentOnReady() depends on the component's compiled output type. This method is only available for lazy-loaded distribution types (dist and www) and, as such, is not available for dist-custom-elements output. If you want to simulate the behavior of componentOnReady() for non-lazy builds, you can implement a helper method to wrap the functionality similar to what the Ionic Framework does here.

The appload event

In addition to component-specific lifecycle hooks, a special event called appload will be emitted when the app and all of its child components have finished loading. You can listen for it on the window object.

If you have multiple apps on the same page, you can determine which app emitted the event by checking event.detail.namespace. This will be the value of the namespace config option you've set in your Stencil config.

window.addEventListener('appload', (event) => {


The following primitives can be imported from the @stencil/core package and used within the lifecycle of a component:

  • Host: <Host>, is a functional component that can be used at the root of the render function to set attributes and event listeners to the host element itself. Refer to the Host Element page for usage info.

  • Fragment: <Fragment>, often used via <>...</> syntax, lets you group elements without a wrapper node.

    To use this feature, ensure that the following TypeScript compiler options are set:

    Type: FunctionalComponent

    import { Component, Fragment } from '@stencil/core'
    tag: 'cmp-fragment',
    export class CmpFragment {
    render() {
    return (
  • h(): It's used within the render() to turn the JSX into Virtual DOM elements.

  • readTask(): Schedules a DOM-read task. The provided callback will be executed in the best moment to perform DOM reads without causing layout thrashing.

    Type: (task: Function) => void

  • writeTask(): Schedules a DOM-write task. The provided callback will be executed in the best moment to perform DOM mutations without causing layout thrashing.

    Type: (task: Function) => void

  • forceUpdate(): Schedules a new render of the given instance or element even if no state changed. Notice forceUpdate() is not synchronous and might perform the DOM render in the next frame.

    Type: (ref: HTMLElement) => void

    import { forceUpdate } from '@stencil/core'

    // inside a class component function
  • getAssetPath(): Gets the path to local assets. Refer to the Assets page for usage info.

    Type: (path: string) => string

    import { Component, Prop, getAssetPath } from '@stencil/core'
    tag: 'cmp-asset',
    export class CmpAsset {
    @Prop() icon: string;

    render() {
    return (
    <img src={getAssetPath(`assets/icons/${this.icon}.png`)} />
  • setMode(): Sets the style mode of a component. Refer to the Styling page for usage info.

    Type: (ref: HTMLElement) => string

    import { setMode } from '@stencil/core'

    // set mode based on a property
    setMode((el) => el.getAttribute('mode'));
  • getMode(): Get the current style mode of your application. Refer to the Styling page for usage info.

    Type: (ref: HTMLElement) => string

    import { getMode } from '@stencil/core'

  • getElement(): Retrieve a Stencil element for a given reference.

    Type: (ref: getElement) => string

    import { getElement } from '@stencil/core'

    const stencilComponent = getElement(document.querySelector('my-cmp'))
    if (stencilComponent) {
    stencilComponent.componentOnReady().then(() => { ... })