Skip to main content
Version: v4.6

Building Form-Associated Components in Stencil

As of v4.5.0, Stencil has support for form-associated custom elements. This allows Stencil components to participate in a rich way in HTML forms, integrating with native browser features for validation and accessibility while maintaining encapsulation and control over their styling and presentation.


Browser support for the APIs that this feature depends on is still not universal1 and the Stencil team has no plans at present to support or incorporate any polyfills for the browser functionality. Before you ship form-associated Stencil components make sure that the browsers you need to support have shipped the necessary APIs.

Creating a Form-Associated Component

A form-associated Stencil component is one which sets the new formAssociated option in the argument to the @Component decorator to true, like so:

import { Component } from '@stencil/core';

tag: 'my-face',
formAssociated: true,
export class MyFACE {

This element will now be marked as a form-associated custom element via the formAssociated static property, but by itself this is not terribly useful.

In order to meaningfully interact with a <form> element that is an ancestor of our custom element we'll need to get access to an ElementInternals object corresponding to our element instance. Stencil provides a decorator, @AttachInternals, which does just this, allowing you to decorate a property on your component and bind an ElementInternals object to that property which you can then use to interact with the surrounding form.


Under the hood the AttachInternals decorator makes use of the very similarly named attachInternals method on HTMLElement to associate your Stencil component with an ancestor <form> element. During compilation, Stencil will generate code that calls this method at an appropriate point in the component lifecycle for both lazy and custom elements builds.

A Stencil component using this API to implement a custom text input could look like this:

import { Component, h, AttachInternals, State } from '@stencil/core';

tag: 'custom-text-input',
shadow: true,
formAssociated: true
export class CustomTextInput {
@State() value: string;

@AttachInternals() internals: ElementInternals;

handleChange(event) {
this.value =;

componentWillLoad() {
this.internals.setFormValue("a default value");

render() {
return (
onInput={(event) => this.handleChange(event)}

If this component is rendered within a <form> element like so:

<custom-text-input name="my-custom-input"></custom-text-input>

then it will automatically be linked up to the surrounding form. The ElementInternals object found at this.internals will have a bunch of methods on it for interacting with that form and getting key information out of it.

In our <custom-text-input> example above we use the setFormValue method to set a value in the surrounding form. This will read the name attribute off of the element and use it when setting the value, so the value typed by a user into the input will added to the form under the "my-custom-input" name.

This example just scratches the surface, and a great deal more is possible with the ElementInternals API, including setting the element's validity, reading the validity state of the form, reading other form values, and more.


  1. See for up-to-date adoption estimates.